How It Works the Male Reproductive System

The male reproductive system is the result of a set of organs internal and external, which release hormones, the androgens and are regulated by the brain through the hypothalamus, which secrete releasing hormone of gonadotropins and pituitary, which releases the hormone foliculo-stimulating and luteinizing.

The primary sexual characteristics, which include the male genital organs are formed during fetal development and the secondary are formed from the puberty, between 9 and 14 years, at which time the body of the boy turns into a man’s body, which are the male genitals, as well as the appearance of the beard, by all over the body and deepening of the voice.

What are the male sex organs

1. Scrotum

The scrotum is a pouch of loose skin, which has the function to support the testicles. They are separated by a septum, which is formed by muscle tissue, and when it contracts, causes wrinkling of the skin of the scrotum, which is very important for the regulation of temperature, since it is in the testicles that produce the sperm.

The scrotum is able to maintain the temperature of the testes below body temperature, by being out of the pelvic cavity. In addition, in some conditions, such as exposure to cold, the cremaster muscle, which inserts on the scrotum and suspend the testicle, it elevates the testes during exposure to cold, preventing the cooling, which also occurs during sexual arousal.


2. Testicles

Men have usually two testicles, which are bodies with an oval shape and measure about 5 cm in length and 2.5 cm of diameter each, weighing about 10 to 15 grams. These organs have the function to secrete sex hormones involved in spermatogenesis, that consists in the formation of sperm, and that stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics.

The functioning of the testes is influenced by the central nervous system, through the hypothalamus, which secretes the releasing hormone for gonadotrophins (GnRH) and the pituitary gland, which releases hormones foliculo-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH).

On the inside of the testes, there are the tubules, seminiferous, where occurs the differentiation of the germ cells in the sperm, being then released in the lumen of the tubules, and continuing in the maturation along its path by the ducts of the reproductive system. Additionally, the tubules, seminiferous have also Sertoli cells, which are responsible for nutrition and maturation of germ cells, and the interstitial tissue surrounding these tubules contains Leydig cells which produce testosterone.

3. The sex glands accessory

These glands are responsible for secreting a large part of the semen, very important for the transport and nutrition of sperm and lubrication of the penis:


  • Seminal vesicles: these are structures which are behind the base of the bladder and in front of the rectum and produce a fluid important to adjust the pH of the urethra in man and to reduce the acidity of the female genital, to make it compatible to the life of the sperm. In addition, has in its composition fructose,which is important to produce energy for their survival and mobility, so that they can fertilize the egg;
  • Prostate: this structure is located below the bladder, surrounds the entire urethra and secret a milky fluid that contributes to their coagulation after ejaculation. In addition, it also contains substances that are used for the production of energy, which contribute to the movement and survival of sperm.
  • Glands bulbouretrais or Cowper’s glands:these glands are located below the prostate and have ducts that open at the spongy urethra, where they secrete a substance that reduces the acidity of the urethra caused by the passage of the urine. This substance is released during sexual arousal, which also has a lubricating function, thereby facilitating the sexual intercourse.
  1. Penis

The penis is a structure of cylindrical shape, composed of corpora cavernosa and spongy bodies, which are located around the urethra. At the distal end of the penis is the glans covered by the foreskin, which has the function to protect that region.

In addition to facilitating the output of urine, the penis has also an important role in the sexual relationship, whose stimuli cause dilation of your arteries that irrigate the corpora cavernosa and spongy and cause the increase of the amount of blood in this region, leading also to the increase and hardening of the penis, facilitating its penetration in the vaginal canal during sexual intercourse.


How does hormonal control

The breeding male is controlled by hormones that stimulate the development of reproductive organs, production of sperm, the development of sexual characteristics the secondary and also the sexual behavior.

The functioning of the testes is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases the releasing hormone for gonadotrophins (GnRH), stimulating the pituitary to secrete the luteinizing hormone (LH) and hormone foliculo-stimulating (FSH). These hormones act directly on the testis, controlling the spermatogenesis and the production of hormones, androgens, estrogens, and progesterone.

Among these last, the hormones more abundant in man are the androgens, the testosterone is the most important and that is related to the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics, also having influence on the formation of sperm.

The androgens also have an influence on the development of primary sexual characteristics and secondary. The primary sexual characteristics, such as the sexual organs the external and internal male, are formed during the development of the embryo and secondary sexual characteristics are developed from puberty.

Puberty occurs around the age of 9 to 14 years, giving rise to changes in the format of the body, growth of the beard and pubic hair and the rest of the body, thickening of the vocal cords and the appearance of sexual desire. In addition, also occurs the growth of the penis, scrotum, seminal vesicles and prostate gland, enlargement of sebaceous secretions responsible for acne.

How It Works the Male Reproductive System 1

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