The air masses cause great interference in the atmospheric circulation of Brazil, they are responsible for marking some climatic characteristics, as well as for the sudden changes in the weather across the country.
Air masses in Brazil are predominantly hot. Three of them are hot and humid in origin (continental equatorial, Atlantic equatorial and Atlantic tropical), one is hot and dry (continental tropical) and the other is cold and humid (polar Atlantic). These masses act according to the variation of climatic seasons. In summer, there is an expansion of the hot masses, which retreat in winter with the penetration of the polar mass.
The performance of air masses
According to Thedresswizard, the average behavior of the Brazilian atmosphere is a consequence of the advances and retreats of these 5 air masses:
The mEC – Continental Equatorial – is the mass of hot and humid air that dominates the North Region, much of the Midwest and part of the Northeast. Its area of origin is the Amazon, hence its importance in transporting the moisture produced by local evapotranspiration. This domain takes place most of the year and is less accentuated during the austral winter.
The mea – Equatorial Atlantic – has its origin in the North Atlantic and has hot and humid characteristics. It operates in the northern part of Brazil, with great influence on the rainfall regime in the Northeast region.
The Tc – Continental Tropical – is a hot and dry weight, originating in the Chaco depression, next to the Paraguayan Pantanal region. It has a lot of influence in Central Brazil and part of the Southeast, especially in winter.
The MTA – Tropical Atlantic – is another mass of warm, moist air that moves by Brazil. It influences, in a dominant way, the atmospheric behavior of the Southeast Region and the South Region. The great domain of the Tropical Atlantic extends from October to May, mainly in the summer months. But during the winter this mass is displaced by the trade winds , also reaching the Northeast.
The mPa – Polar Atlântica – also called Polar Antarctica , is the cold air mass that determines, during the winter, the state of weather or atmospheric behavior in the South Region. Southeast and Midwest regions.
These cold waves are often accompanied by prolonged rain or drizzle, frost and even snowfall. Even the Amazon is affected by these Polar Atlantic advances during the austral winter. It is the phenomenon of “ cold ”, which occurs in the south of Amazonas and in the north of Mato Grosso.
Compare the two air mass maps. Note that mEc, mEa and mTc act more in summer, as their action is attenuated in winter by the expansion of mTa and mPa.
The types of winds
The trade winds – which displace the Atlantic Equatorial and Tropical air masses – are called constants.
The trade wind is the constant or regular movement of humid air from the tropics towards the equator, at low altitudes, causing rain and calms along the equatorial zone.
As it approaches the equator, the air heats up, causes rain and loses moisture, rises and returns dry to the tropics. It is the counter-trade wind , responsible for the formation of some tropical deserts, such as the Sahara and the Kalahari, both in Africa.
In addition to constant winds, the Brazilian coast also benefits from periodic winds such as the breeze .
The breeze-type wind is the air that moves along the coasts, at certain times, between the mainland and the sea. The direction of the breeze is, at dusk, from land to sea, and at dawn, from sea to land. Because of this shift in the wind, the breeze is also called the breeze . This wind is responsible for the maritime and continental conditions that influence the other elements of the climate: temperature, pressure, humidity and rain.