5 Main Symptoms of Testicular Cancer and How to Treat It
The testicular cancer is a rare type of tumor that arises mainly in young people between 15 and 35 years. In addition, the testicular cancer testicular cancer is more common in men that have suffered a strong trauma or multiple traumas in the region, as in the case of athletes, for example.
Usually, the cancer develops very slowly and, therefore, the symptoms of testicular cancer can be difficiles identify. However, the most common include:
- The presence of hard nodules, and painless about the size of a pea;
- The increase in the sizeand, consequently, of the weight of the testis;
- Breast enlargementor tenderness in the region;
- A testicle harderthan the other;
- Pain in the testicleto pat you down or pain in the testicle after intimate contact.
The best way to identify possible signs of testicular cancer is to do regular self examination of the testicles in the bath, for example, it helps to identify some of the early changes that can eventually turn to cancer.
If there are changes in the self-examination, is advised to consult a urologist to do diagnostic tests, such as X-ray, blood tests or specific ct scan to confirm the diagnosis and start the appropriate treatment, if necessary.
There are still other problems in the testicle that can cause symptoms very similar to those of cancer, especially the presence of a lump, but that are the sign of less serious situations, such as epididymitis or varicocele, but who need to be treated properly.
Possible signs of testicular cancer advanced
When the cancer is already at a more advanced stage, you can end up spreading to other body sites, and generate other symptoms such as:
- Constant pain in the lower back;
- Sensation of shortness of breath or cough frequent;
- Constant pain in the belly;
- Headache frequent or confusion.
These signs are more rare and usually indicate that the cancer cannot spread to other sites such as lymph nodes, lung, liver or brain, for example.
At this stage, the cancer is more difficult to combat, however, the treatment is done to try to decrease the size of the cancer and relieve the symptoms.
How to confirm the diagnosis
The best way to confirm if there really is cancer in the testicle is to consult a urologist. This physician, in addition to doing a physical assessment, identify the symptoms and confirm the family history can also ask for an ultrasound or a blood test to confirm the presence of cancer. In addition, you can also do a biopsy of the tissue of one of the testicles, if there appears to be abnormalities suggestive of cancer.
Possible causes of testicular cancer
The cause of testicular cancer is not yet completely understood, however, there are some factors that seem to increase the risk of a man developing this type of cancer. The main ones are:
- Have a testicle that never came down;
- Have a family history of testicular cancer;
- Be infected by HIV;
- Already have had cancer in one testicle;
- Have between 20 and 34 years.
In addition, be race caucasian also seems to increase up to 5 times the risk of having this type of cancer, when comparing with the black race, for example.
How is it treated
The treatment for testicular cancer depends on the evolution of the disease, because they can vary from radiation therapy, chemotherapy or surgery. However, testicular cancer has a cure in the majority of cases, even when formed metastases.
Thus, treatment usually starts with surgery to remove the testicle affected and all the cancer cells, being enough in the cases of the less developed of the cancer. Already in more advanced cases, it may be necessary to do radiation or chemotherapy after surgery, to eliminate remaining tumor cells that may have been.
After the treatment, the urologist marks several queries to do blood tests and ct scans, to assess if the cancer has been completely eliminated.
The treatment causes infertility?
Usually, the man is only sterile when it is necessary to remove both testicles, which happens in a few cases. However, in these cases it is possible to preserve some sperm in specialized laboratories prior to surgery, which can then be used to do artificial insemination, for example, allowing to have children.